Essay drosophila model number

Metrics details. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been increasingly recognized as an important model organism in nutrition research.

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In order to conduct nutritional studies in fruit flies, special attention should be given to the composition of the experimental diets. Besides complex diets, which are often based on maize, yeast, sucrose, and agar, Drosophila can be also fed chemically defined diets.

These so-called holidic diets are standardized in terms of their macro- and micronutrient composition although the quantitative nutrient requirements of flies have yet not been fully established and warrant further investigations. For instance, only few studies address the fatty acid, vitamin, mineral, and trace element requirements of fruit flies. Diet-induced diabetes and obesity models have been established, and in this context, often, the so-called high-fat and high-sugar diets are fed.

However, the composition of these diets is not sufficiently defined and varies between studies. A consensus within the scientific community needs to be reached to standardize the exact composition of experimental complex and holidic diets for D. Since D. We suggest that a comprehensive approach, which combines deep phenotyping with disease-related Drosophila models under defined dietary conditions, might lead to the foundation of a so-called fly clinic. The quality of nutritional studies largely depends on the research question addressed, the experimental design, the statistical power, and the composition of the experimental diets.

The vast majority of nutritional studies in model organism have been conducted in laboratory rodents such as mice and rats. Nutrient requirements for rodents are relatively well established including energy, lipids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins, and amino acids as well as vitamins, minerals, and trace elements [ 1 ]. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used as a robust model organism in genetics, developmental biology, aging, and other areas of biomedical research over a long period of time.

Only recently experimental nutritionists have begun to consider Drosophila as a versatile model organism in food and nutrition research [ 2 ]. Thus, it is not surprising that dietary requirements for flies have yet not been fine-tuned to the same extent as for laboratory rodents. As far as complex Drosophila diets are concerned, it is interesting to note that many different recipes for complex media have been described in the literature. In this review, we critically survey the variety of diets—including the preliminary state of chemically defined diets—employed in Drosophila research.

Moreover, we point out that a standardized diet will be necessary to implement the fruit fly as a promising model organism in diet-disease interaction studies. Drosophila diets are often formulated on the basis of yeast, maize, sucrose, and agar [ 34 ]. However, the nutrient composition can vary substantially among these recipes. Moreover, sometimes, other ingredients including glucose, barley, soya, peptone, and banana are used. Diets may also differ in terms of preservatives to prolong stability and shelf-life.

Most recipes include both p-hydroxy-benzoic acid methyl ester nipagin and propionic acid; however, others use solely one of these preservatives, while in some cases, antibiotics such as penicillin-streptomycin or a phosphoric-propionic acid mix are added [ 34 ]. In this regard, it is noteworthy that these two major fat sources do not only differ substantially in their composition, relevant variations are also observed between different lard and coconut oil batches [ 6 ].

It is characterized by high amounts of lauric, myristic, capric, and caprylic acid which differ significantly from lard [ 6 ]. Accordingly, high-sugar diets comprise either variable amounts of glucose, fructose, or sucrose [ 5 ], which complicates inter-laboratory comparisons.This page of the essay has words.

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Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism used in genetics and various research in cellular and molecular biology for many years. This organism is known for its short life cycle, small size, genetic variability, and its in-expensive trait to be studied in the laboratories. Thomas Morgan, an American geneticist is heavily credited for his work in discovering eye pigment mutation in the flies. He discovered mutation of white eyed Drosophila and concluded they were sex-linked.

Russel and Tikko The recessive allele rugose rg is one of many genes studied for eye color pigmentation in D. This abnormality resulted in loss of cone cells. Furthermore, this gene encodes for a kinase protein A and is mandatory for retinal formation and cell differentiation.

The gene rugose rg is an aging gene, that plays a role in physiological age and senescence. Fecundity changes are also incorporated into this, and assimilate dramatically with age. SNPs, otherwise known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms, affect fecundity and life span as well. With this said, increase in SNP levels, result when comparing fecundity with age.

This relation provides adequate support and provides theory of aging Durham, At the biological level rugose participates in imaging circadian pacemakers in order to detect brain study and intact cAMP levels by a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor also known as PDF. In some flies, pacemakers were elevated by, activating ortholog of mammalian adenylate cyclase 3 AC3however it seemed to have no effect. Phenotypic characteristics in the mutation of the gene The sex-linked recessive rugose rg gene is located on chromosome 1 is observed to have small rough eye phenotype showing an abnormality in the ocelli.

Many are seen with two or three cone cells in their ommatidia when normal complements are observed to have four. In comparison to wild type the ommatidia are not hexagonal in shape.In: Science. Drosophila was chosen as our model organism not only because of its short life cycle and fast breeding time but also because they are easy to maintain and handle in the laboratory.

In this experiment a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross were performed. The law of segregation establishes the concept of dominance. The law of segregation states that an individual organism possesses two alleles that can encode a trait and that these alleles separate when gametes are formed and one of the two alleles go into each gamete.

For a dihybrid cross these statements still hold true but the law of independent assortment can also be observed. This law states that alleles at different loci on a chromosome that encode for different things separate independently of one another.

METHOD Before beginning the experiment it was important to determine the sexes of the flies using a dissecting microscope and then to predict which phenotypes would be expressed. To distinguish between the sexes it was helpful to observe size, shape, and color of the flies, and to also check for the existence of sex combs. Only male flies have sex combs.

Female flies are usually somewhat For several of my college years I worked full time making school very challenging. Over the course of time my grades gradually improved after deciding to quit working. Being in the science field gave me the skills to plan, execute and close any task or project that was presented to me.

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These are the skills that I feel will make a great and qualified Project Manager. Research Experience My research experience was the highlight of my academic experience throughout college. During my junior year, I worked with cyanobacteria, trying to develop a link between it and mosquitoes. The purpose of my research was to find out how cyanobacteria could be used to kill off mosquitoes.

Towards the end of my junior year I worked with fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster. The purpose of this project was to successfully cross-link breed with different types of mutations to Also from the naked eye the vial seems to have a lot more male than female flies. What is the general color of their bodies? The most common phenotype of all the flies eye color was red. The bodies of the flies seem to be a yellow color. Were there any larvae in your culture?

If so, where were they located? Describe their movement. Could you tell what they were doing? I saw a few larvae crawling around. The larvae seems to be located near the food source and the bottom of the vial.

Were there any pupae in your culture? Approximate number. They were many pupae in my culture, mostly located on the vial walls. I'll say about 20 pupae was in the culture.

essay drosophila model number

How many adult male and female flies were in your original culture? I didn't see any eggs in my new culture, but I know eggs must have been deposited because the vial was filled with What is tradeoff and examples of tradeoff. A trade-off or tradeoff is a situation that involves losing one quality or aspect of something in return for gaining another quality or aspect. It often implies a decision to be made with full comprehension of both the upside and downside of a particular choice; the term is also used in an evolutionary context, in which case the selection process acts as the "decision-maker".

I also chose this article because it consisted of theories and experimental conditionings of why we forget thing.The white eyes are the sex linked trait. These traits were taken and crossed with wild type D. The experiment that we ran was to be completed by April 20, Professional team of writers is able to craft custom essay from scratch according to your instructions.

Drosophila melanogaster

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essay drosophila model number

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I really thank you that you were there when I needed help in my term paper. Your company Drosophila melanogaster Order custom writing paper now! Get a price quote. Title: Drosophila melanogaster.

Essay Details:. Subject: Science. Author: Pat H. Date: December 28, Level: University. Grade: B.

Drosophila Melanogaster : A Model Organism Within Genetics Research Essay

Essay text: The white eyes are the sex linked trait. Calculate a fair price for your order. Do you need an essay? Do you need many essays? Ap Lab 3: Mitosis And Meiosis.Phenotype and Genetic Function of the purple Gene Introduction The 20th century was a time of change for many fields of science, but in terms of genetics, Drosophila melanogaster rose as one of the most significant organisms to use as a model for scientific findings to come.

Drosophila melanogaster is a small fly, approximately 2 mm in length that feeds on old, decomposing fruit.

Drosophila is an ideal model organism that is largely used for the biological research study for over the centuries. In history, there is much research relevant to Drosophila contribute to the understanding of human towards different fundamental biological phenomena.

essay drosophila model number

The theory of inheritance which was first proposed by Gregor. Due to this similarity, the use of D. Rationale: Nowadays, the use of animals in vivo, such as Drosophila melanogaster, brings a lot of benefits to understanding human neurodegenerative diseases and to the discovery of new drugs.

Introduction In most kitchens the small flies that are found are Drosophila Melanogaster also called fruit fly.

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They are often brought in by ripened tomatoes, grapes and other perishable items from the garden. Drosophila melanogaster is a little two winged insect about 3mm long two winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. The drosophila egg is about half a millimeter long. Fertilization takes about one day the embryo to develop and hatch into a worm-like larva. The larva. This analysis is done in order to investigate the transcription factor binding sites variability with the comparison of ready published data of transcription factor binding maps for Drosophila isogenic lines and human individuals.

Genome is considered as the encoder or provider of disambiguation for many diseases, viruses, DNA and other organisms. Here it is very important to understand. Studying D. Given the critical nature of the genes that encode for proteins responsible for organelle biogenesis and trafficking within the cell, it is unsurprising that various orthologs of these proteins exist between organisms.

Interestingly, the genes encoding proteins responsible for these functions in humans are orthologous genes in D. This analysis is done in order to investigate the transcription factor binding sites TFBS variability with the comparison of ready published data of transcription factor binding maps for Drosophila isogenic lines and human individuals. In this paper, it is very important to understand the concept of population genetics.

Population genetics explains. Chondraah Holmes Dr. SNP mapping is a well-recognized technique within the field of C.

Billy Lee Dr. He is especially interested in the phenomenon of post-transcriptional RNA editing and its function. RNA editing has been demonstrated to be necessary for proper development and function, but its role is not well understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fruit fly, used as a model organism in genetics research.

We used this species to test the pattern of inheritance of two traits; eye color and wing type. With Mendelian Genetics, we assume genes are not linked. Thus, our hypothesis is that the genes are not linked. We ran two crosses, one with a wild type female and mutant male, and one with a mutant female and wild type male.

We then proceeded to look at the two generations following this original cross; the F1 generation, or children of original cross, and the F2 generation, created when the flies from F1 were crossed again essentially breeding the children amongst each otherusing wild type females with wild type males, and wild type females and mutant males. Looking at our results in a chi square test, we find that we reject the assumption that the genes are not linked for cross 1, and accept that they are not linked for cross 2.

However, we know that the trait for eye color is X-linked, and the trait for wing type is autosomal, so they cannot be linked.Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Hypothesis: If we cross two heterozygous individuals, our observed offspring in the second generation F2 will have a phenotypic ratio equivalent to the expected Mendelian probability of The parents of the F1 generation were a di-hybrid cross of ebony body and vestigial winged Drosophilawhich are both recessive also known as mutants.

Using statists as a tool we could predict the expected offspring for our F2 generation. The expected is our controlled variable applied in this experiment. Protocol used for this experiment involved a controlled environment, we created Drosophila vials; our vials included an instant Drosophila medium; plastic mesh and an incubator, also referred to as a fruit fly home.

Drosophila Melanogaster Lab Report

We applied water to the medium, the white flakes turn blue when mixed with water; Drosophila Melanogaster Introduction Drosophila mature through complete metamorphosis, as do all members of the order Diptera.

This helps to simplify genetic mapping and study. The egg of a Drosophila is around half of a millimeter long and will take one day from fertilization for the embryo to develop and hatch into its larvae form. The larvae go through three stages, or instars, before entering the pupal stage. This all takes place in roughly six days. Once the Drosophila has entered its pupal stage, it will undergo changes to transform into the adult form and shed its pupal case.

The newly emerged adult will be fertile within twelve hours.

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Of course, temperature does effect the maturation and life cycle of Drosophila. Aim: to establish whether characteristics produced from the offspring of a drosophila cross are recessive or dominant traits. Hypothesis: If certain phenotypes are expressed in the offspring from the cross of certain Drosophilathen the determination or justification of recessive or dominant phenotypes can be found. These fruit flies as we call it can give us major fields of study within biology and genetics because they are very easy to care for and breed quickly.

essay drosophila model number

Genetics is this science of heredity of traits pass from parent to off spring. Through this, fruit flies are excellent to work with as we are able to see many generations of the flies. In fruit fly genetics there are what we call recessive and dominant traits. If a trait is dominant it is also given an upper case letter code, although if it is a mutation or recessive Introduction: Drosophila melanogaster commonly known as the fruit fly is considered a model organism in the field of genetics because of its short life cycle of about 10 weeks and the ability of the fly to produce a relatively large number of offspring at eggs per day upon female maturity.

The physical size of the male and female Drosophila is approximately 2. The intricate nervous system of the fruit fly has made them very vital to genetic research in nervous system disorders and cancer research Klug, The goal of the Drosophila melanogaster lab was to breed homozygous wild-type Drosophila melanogaster with homozygous mutant Drosophila melanogaster the P1 to produce the F1 offspring from a monohybrid cross.

The F1 offspring mate and produce the F2 generation. Two known homozygous mutant fly types were crossed dihybrid cross in the P1 generation to produce the F1 offspring.

The F1 generation produced the F2 generation dihybrid crosses. After each generation the offspring were counted and observed for specific phenotypic characteristics, including sex and the data collected for comparison.Arnar Thor was a pleasure to work with.

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